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Anthropology - The Doctrine of Man
I. Man in His State of Integrity.
A. His Origin.
B. His Nature.
C. His Constitution.
D. His Condition.
E. His Headship.
II. Man in His State of Sin.
A. The Fall of Man.
B. The Fallen Sons of Adam.
III. Man in His State of Grace.
A. His Standing.
B. His State.
C. His Two Natures.
Anthropology comes from the Greek word anthropos, meaning
man. Anthropology is the doctrine of man. There are many
different definitions of man, some comical, some tragic. In this study
of anthropology we shall go to the true source the Scriptures.
Man has always wanted to know who he is, where he came from, and where
he is going. Gods Holy Word gives the only complete account.
I. MAN IN HIS STATE OF INTEGRITY
By this we mean man in his original state of purity, his uprightness.
A. His Origin.
a. Not by Abiogenesis or Spontaneous Generation. This theory holds to
the belief that there was no creator of man, but that man simply came
into being without a cause and began to exist, fulfilling the nursery
rhyme, which reads:
Where did you come from, Baby dear?
Out of the nowhere, into here!
This argument needs no answer, but in order to forestall criticism,
we simply state that if such a thing as abiogenesis were possible, there
would be no power to keep it from happening again. There is no record
of a second occurrence, and, of course, it never happened in the first
b. Not by Evolution or Natural Developments. A short definition of evolution
is: That process by which, through some kind of aggregation of
matter through many ages and species, by chance or by law, man appears.
This concept has held sway for many years, but its adherents are on
the decline. Modern science, such as anthropology, is refuting all of
its claims. The Bible declares that man is a separate creation of God,
and that the animals were created at a different time, completely apart
from man. Evolution teaches that man and animals have a common origin,
which branched out into the different species. In refuting this we use
the Scriptures and human reasoning as follows:
(1) It is Opposed to Scripture. The Scriptures state: After his
kind (Gen. 1:24). This pins the species down to themselves, forbidding
them to evolve into a completely new species.
(2) There is No Record of Animal Becoming Man. Surely, in six thousand
years, if evolution were true, there would be living examples of it
(3) There is No Evidence that the Missing Link Has Been Found. Many
so-called history books show pictures of the creature they term as the
missing link. These pictures are photographs of drawings, and not photographs
of real creatures, as none of these exist. The missing link,
we are told, is that creature between man and the ape. Its picture is
wholly the imagination of the artist who took a piece of a bone or tooth
and built a man around it. It is the same as a man taking a key hole
and building a house around it. We would like to quote William Jennings
Bryan concerning the missing link: If the missing
link has been found, why are they still looking for it?
(4) There is No Evidence that Primitive Man Differed From Man Today.
(5) There Is Proof that Human Blood is One Blood. (Acts 17:26). World
War II has proved this. The blood of a white man can be placed into
the veins of a black man, and vice versa, and give life. Blood transfusions
have only been in practice during the last hundred years, but God revealed
this to us several thousand years ago.
(6) There is a Great Difference Between the Constitution of Man and
(a) Physically. Man is an upright being, while animals are on all fours.
(b) Mentally. Man has intellect, while animals have instinct.
(c) Morally. Man is the only creature of God that has moral qualities.
(d) Spiritually. Man alone has been created with spiritual concepts.
He alone of all the creatures can worship God.
2. Positive. Man is a direct creation of God. God created man
in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female
created he them (Gen. 1:27).
B. His Nature.
1. Original Image of Man. God said, Let us make man in our image,
after our likeness (Gen. 1:26a). Whoso sheddeth mans
blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made
he man (Gen. 9:6). See also I Corinthians 11:7; James 3:9.
a. Seen in Mans Triunity. The LORD God formed man out of
the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of
life; and man became a living soul (Gen. 2:7). The very
God of peace sanctify you wholly: and I pray God your whole spirit and
soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus
Christ (I Thess. 5:23).
b. Seen in Mans Intellectual and Moral Nature. Lie not one
to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds;
and have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the
image of him that created him (Col. 3:9, 10). See also Ephesians
c. Seen in Physical Likeness. It is true that God is a Spirit (John
4:24); God is invisible (Col. 1:15). Yet God has always had a form in
which He manifests Himself: As for me, I shall behold thy face
in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake with beholding
thy form (Ps. 17:15, R.V.). See also Philippians 2:6,7; Mark 15:12;
John 5:37, R.V.
Christ was not made in the form or image of Adam, but Adam was made
in the form, or image of Christ, who was to come: Nevertheless
death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned
after the similitude of Adams transgression, who is the figure
of him that was to come (Rom. 5:14).
2. Original Innocence of Man. Some declare that Adam was created in
holiness, or righteousness. This is not quite correct. Man was created
perfect, yes, but he was created in innocence. There is a vast difference
between innocence and righteousness. Innocence is sinlessness that has
never faced trial. Righteousness is innocence that has been tested and
tried, and has come out victorious.
C. His Constitution.
As we shall see, man is composed of earthly (Gen. 2:7) and spiritual
elements (I Thess. 5:23; Heb. 4:12).
1. Body. His body was made from the earth. This was the first part
of man that was formed. The LORD God formed man of the dust of
the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man
became a living soul (Gen. 2:7). The body is set forth in Scripture
as the house of the inner man. How much less in them that dwell
in houses of clay, whose foundation is the dust, which are crushed before
the moth? (Job 4:19). See also II Corinthians 5:1, 3, 4. The process
by which God made man is not known; we leave that up to God. Men give
their opinions and speculations, but they remain as such. The word dust
does not mean clay, or old dirty dirt, but the finest materials of the
a. Analysis Proves Mans Source. Modern chemical analysis detects
in the body the same elements that are in the earth beneath mans
feet; such elements as sodium, carbon, iron, and the like.
b. Earth Sustains Mans Existence. The body is sustained by that
which grows out of the earth. It is mans body and not his spirit
that is sustained. Famine in our modern day has proved that if vegetation
is taken away, life is taken away. Kill vegetation and you kill man.
c. Death Substantiates Mans Elements. At death corruption sets
in, and mans body soon returns to the dust from which it was formed.
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return
unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and
unto dust shalt thou return (Gen. 3:19).
2. Soul. The LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and
breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living
soul (Gen. 2:7). See also I Corinthians 15:45. The soul is the
seat of the emotions and appetites. Plants, animals and man have bodies;
only animals and man have a soul; but only man has a spirit. The soul
is that conscious life which is in man and animal. Plants have life,
but it is unconscious life. There is a difference between the souls
of men and the souls of animals. The animals soul is connected
with his body, while mans soul is connected with his spirit. The
soul of an animal dies with the animal, but mans soul never dies,
for he was made a living soul a soul that would never
As stated, the soul of man is the seat of his emotions and appetites,
and the following Scriptures will bring out the degrees of same: Appetites:
Thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy
soul lusteth after, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which
he hath given thee: the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of
the roebuck, and as of the hart (Deut. 12:15). Desires: If
any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently,
and then take as much as thy soul desireth; then he would answer him,
Nay; but thou shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force
(I Sam. 2:16). See also Deuteronomy 12:20; Psalm 107:18; Proverbs 6:30;
Isaiah 29:8; I Samuel 18:1. Hates: David said on that day, Whosoever
getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and
the blind, that are hated of Davids soul, he shall be chief and
captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come
into the house (II Sam. 5:8). Mourns: His flesh upon him
shall have pain, and his soul within him shall mourn (Job 14:22).
Is Vexed: The man of God said, Let her alone; for her soul is
vexed within her: and the LORD hath hid it from me, and hath not told
me (II Kings 4:27b). Rejoices: I will greatly rejoice in
the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me
with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with a robe of righteousness,
as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth
herself with her jewels (Is. 61:10). Suffers: They said
one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that
we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not
hear; therefore is this distress come upon us (Gen. 42:21). Sorrows:
He said unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death:
tarry ye here, and watch (Mark 14:34).
Where does man get his soul?
a. Pre-existence. This theory teaches that all souls that have ever
been in the world, or shall ever be in the world, were created in the
beginning. At time of conception, they are united with the body. This
was taught by Plato, but it was never accepted by the church, as it
is without Scriptural foundation.
b. Creationism. This belief holds that after forty days of conception
the soul unites with the body. Roman Catholicism proposes this. If this
belief is true, then God is the creator of sinful souls.
c. Traducianism. This is the truth which holds that both soul and body
are derived from the parents. Adam lived a hundred and thirty
years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called
his name Seth (Gen. 5:3). See also Acts 17:24-26.
3. Spirit. Here is where man differs from all creatures. In Hebrews
12:9 God is said to be Father of spirits. This does not
mean the Father of angels, but of the spirits of men made perfect. God
is never said to be the Father of souls.
As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works
is dead also (Jas. 2:26). When a body dies, the soul departs with
the spirit of man. The soul and spirit can be separated the word
of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword,
piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the
joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of
the heart (Heb. 4:12). However, there is no Scriptural proof that
they are ever separated. The rich man of Luke 16 goes to Hades upon
death, and he has both soul and spirit with him. See also Matthew 10:28.
The spirit of man is the seat of his intelligence. What man knoweth
the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so
the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God (I Cor.
2:11). Animals do not possess intelligence. Be ye not as the horse,
or as the mule, which have no understanding: whose mouth must be held
in with bit and bridle, lest they come near unto thee (Ps. 32:9).
The word spirit, both in the Hebrew and Greek, is sometimes
translated as breath, and wind. The context
determines the translation.
The materialists say that the word for spirit should be breath,
and that when man dies he is gone forever.
Some people say that man lost his spirit at the Fall and regains his
spirit at conversion. This would make him a dual being however, and
this conception has no Scriptural grounds.
4. Heart. When we speak of the heart, we do not mean the muscle in
the body, but rather the seat of conscience. Let us draw near
with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled
from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water
(Heb. 10:22). See also I John 3:19,20; Acts 2:26; 5:3, 5; Matthew 22:37.
There is a warning that there may be a profession without a possession,
a head knowledge without a heart trust. Not every one that saith
unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he
that doeth the will of the Father which is in heaven See also
Matthew 7:22, 23.
D. His Condition.
By this we mean mans condition in his state of integrity before
1. His Knowledge. He had immediate knowledge, intuitive knowledge.
He was not an adult infant. He named all animals that came from the
hand of God; It would take an intelligent man to do this. Adam
gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast
of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him
2. His Fellowship. He was able to commune with God. The LORD
God commanded the man saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest
freely eat (Gen. 2:16). God said, Behold, I have given you
every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and
every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you
it shall be for meat (Gen. 1:29).
3. His Home. It was located in a garden. The LORD God planted
a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed
(Gen. 2:8). Some men claim that primitive man was a cave man, but this
was not so, for he was a garden man. The first records we have of men
living in caves are of the persecuted: Of whom the world was not
worthy; they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and
caves of the earth (Heb. 11:38), and of the insane: when
he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs
a man with an unclean spirit (Mark 5:2).
This garden is not called Eden, but rather, the Garden in Eden. Eden
means plains, or plateau. Armenia, no doubt, is the place where man
4. His Companion. For Adam there was not found an help meet for
him. . . . And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made
he a woman, and brought her unto the man (Gen. 2:20, 22). The
words help meet are not a compound word, but two separate
ones, meaning fit for. Eve was fit for Adam.
Some who laugh at this rib story cannot tell us where woman
did come from. Why do you suppose God did not make woman from the dust?
For the simple reason that God did not want to have two origins of man.
God can make a human being in four ways:
Without the aid of a woman, as Eve.
Without a man or woman, as Adam.
Without a man, by a woman, as Christ.
5. His Work. God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful,
and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion
over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every
living thing that moveth upon the earth (Gen. 1:28). The
LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress
it and to keep it (Gen. 2:15). There was employment in the garden,
but no toil. There was work, but not the kind that wears one out. The
word keep in Genesis 2:15 is best translated guard.
Against whom was Adam to guard the garden? Against wild animals? No,
there were none. Against wild men? No, for Adam was the only man. He
was put on his guard against the possible appearance of the Devil. Whenever
man is placed in a position of trust, God always gives ample warning.
6. His Food. God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing
seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the
which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat
(Gen. 1:29). The first man and beast of the field were vegetarians.
Their diets included no meat. Man was not carnivorous as evolutionists
7. His Responsibility.
a. To Replenish the Earth With a New Order Man. God blessed
them and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish
the earth, and subdue it (Gen. 1:28). Adam was the first man:
The first man Adam was made a living soul (I Cor. 15:45).
Eve is the mother of all human beings. Adam called his wifes
name Eve; because she was the mother of all living (Gen. 3:20).
b. To Abstain from Eating of the Fruit. This fruit was of the tree of
the knowledge of Good and Evil. The LORD God commanded the man
saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the
tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for
in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die (Gen.
2: 16, 17).
They were allowed to eat freely, as there was plenty. There was only
one tree forbidden them. We do not know what kind of fruit it was. Nothing
was wrong with the fruit; there was just Gods prohibition behind
it. God wanted Adam and Eve to have knowledge, but he did not want them
to gain it by disobedience. Re-member, man had been placed on his guard;
he had been warned of the enemy; Satan did not come in unawares. This
being true, why did God allow Adam and Eve to be subjected to the attack
of the Devil? Testing always comes before a blessing. Man always has
to be tried before he is promoted.
E. His Leadership.
The entire human race comes from that one man, Adam. As is the head,
so are the descendants.
1. Ethnography. This is the branch of anthropology that considers
man geographically and descriptively, treating of the subdivision of
races, the causes of migration, and related matters. This science points
to a common homeland Armenia.
2. Comparative Philology. This is the science of language, and it considers
that men all come from the same origin.
3. Psychology. This is the science of the mind, and it also indicates
that man comes from one origin.
4. Physiology. This is the science that deals with the organic structure
of the body, and it declares that all men come from the same source,
a common origin.
II. MAN IN HIS STATE OF SIN
A. The Fall of Man.
Some may say that the fall of man is an old Babylonian fable, but we
have only to look upon man and see him toil for his bread, weaken in
his diseases, and die in his misery, to realize that he has had a fall.
By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so
death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned (Rom. 5:12).
1. The Source of Sin. Now the serpent was more subtle than any
beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the
woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
(Gen. 3: 1). I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled
Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted from the
simplicity that is in Christ (II Cor. 11:3). God is not speaking
about a beast when He mentions the serpent, but a person. Notice that
the Scripture does not say, more subtle than any other beast of
the field, but leaves out the word other, stating
only that he is more subtle than any beast. This is merely a statement
of what God thinks of the Devil. Nowhere in Scripture does it state
that the Devil was in the serpent, but it does say that the serpent
was the Devil. He laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which
is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years (Rev.
2. The Nature of Sin. The serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall
not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then
your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and
evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that
it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise,
she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband
with her; and he did eat (Gen. 3:4-6). Now the fruit was all right;
it was good fruit, with only the prohibition of God behind it. Some
people may contend that it was a small thing to bring about mans
downfall, but we ask the question, How many steps does it take
to fall off a bluff?
a. He Doubted Gods Love. In doubting Gods love, man denied
Gods goodness, and acted apart from God and became a sinner. There
is a way which seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the
ways of death (Prov. 14:12). See also Isaiah 55:6.
b. He Doubted Gods Word. In doubting Gods Word, man denied
His Truth; denying His Truth, he acted in spite of God and became a
criminal. Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law:
for sin is the transgression of the law (I John 3:4).
c. He Doubted Gods Authority. In doubting Gods authority,
man denied Gods deity; denying His deity, he became contrary to
God. Thus, he became Gods enemy and a rebel in Gods universe.
The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to
the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the
flesh cannot please God (Rom. 8:7, 8).
The testing was given to see if man would stay true to God. He failed
because he wanted to be a god. The Devil himself fell (Is. 14), because
he wanted to be like the Most High God. This brought about his downfall,
so he planted the same seed of false ambition in Adam and Eve to see
if it would bring about their downfall, and it did.
Some may ask, Was this fair to them? They were warned and
placed on guard against Satan. There was only one prohibition in the
garden. They did not need the fruit; they lacked nothing.
3. The Effects of Sin.
a. Immediate Effects Upon Eve.
(1) Shame. They both were naked, the man and his wife, and were
not ashamed. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that
they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves
aprons (Gen. 2:25; 3:7). God himself is clothed with a garment
of light (Ps. 104:2); and when He made man, he made him in His own image
and likeness. Thus, we believe that man also was clothed with a garment
of light. When man sinned, that clothing of light was lost, and he made
himself a fig leaf covering to take the place of that which was lost.
Ever since, man has tried to put on what God once gave him, but he has
nothing but filthy rags.
(2) Fear. He said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was
afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself (Gen. 3:10). Man
still tries to hide from God.
(3) Separation from God. There is no doubt that man lost his perfect
nature and ended his fellowship with God. There is no such thing as
the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man of the natural man,
the unsaved man.
(4) Expulsion from the Garden. The LORD God sent him forth from
the garden of Eden to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he
drove out the man; and he placed at the end of the garden of Eden cherubims,
and a flaming sword, which turned every way to keep the way of the tree
of life (Gen. 3:23, 24). Man was driven out.
(5) Lost Lordship Over Creation. In the beginning Adam was indeed the
ruler of all earthly creatures: Thou madest him to have dominion
over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet:
all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beast of the field; the fowl of the
air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths
of the sea (Ps. 8:6-8). This is not true of man today. He has
lost that lordship. Christ will return it to man when He comes again
(Heb. 2 and Is. 11).
b. Remote Effects Upon Adams Posterity.
(1) The Spirit is Darkened. This I say therefore, and testify
in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in
the vanity of their mind, having the understanding darkened, being alienated
from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because
of the blindness of their heart (Eph. 4:17, 18). The darkened
room of understanding will remain darkened until the Holy Spirit comes
in to illuminate.
(2) The Soul Is Debased arid Corrupt. Unbelievers, being past
feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness to work all uncleanness
with greediness (Eph. 4:19). See also Jeremiah 17:9.
(3) The Body Is Subjected to Disease and Death. The creature itself
also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious
liberty of the children of God (Rom. 8:21).
4. The Effects on Sin.
a. The Immediate Expression of Gods Judgment.
(1) On the Serpent. The LORD God said unto the serpent, Because
thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every
beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou
eat all the days of thy life: and I will put enmity between thee and
the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head,
and thou shalt bruise his heel (Gen. 3:14, 15). Satan, in all
of his majesty, is considered nothing but a serpent. This is a figure
of speech, for we know that snakes do not eat dust. Gods decree
unto the serpent that he should eat dust all the days of his life, showed
the contempt in which He held the Devil.
(2) On the Woman. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply
thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children;
and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee
(3) On Creation. Unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened
unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded
thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy
sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns
also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the
herb of the field (Gen. 3:17, 18).
(4) On Man. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till
thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust
thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return (Gen. 3:19). See also
b. The Future Expression of Gods Judgment. The fearful,
and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers,
and sorcerers, and idolators, and all liars, shall have their part in
the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second
death (Rev. 21:8).
5. The Provision for the Sinner. I will put enmity between thee
and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy
head, and thou shalt bruise his heel (Gen. 3:15). In the hour
that man sinned, God promised a Redeemer. The Seed of the woman is no
one else but Jesus Christ. Unto Adam also and to his wife did
the LORD God make coats of skin, and clothe them (Gen. 3:21).
When they realized their nakedness, they covered themselves with aprons
of fig leaves. God clothed them with animal skins instead. As far as
covering their nakedness was concerned, fig leaves were as good as animal
skins; however, blood had to be spilt For without the shedding
of blood there is no remission of sin. They had to be covered
with that which was slain for their sins. Likewise, the sinner today
has to be clothed with the righteousness of Him who died for them.
B. The Fallen Sons of Adam.
1. Their Standing.
a. In Adam. Since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection
of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be
made alive (I Cor. 15:21, 22). See also I Corinthians 15:45, 47;
Romans 5:12-21. There are only two representative men in the world:
the first man and the second man; the first Adam and the last Adam.
All men are born in Adam; all born-again men are in Christ.
b. Of Sin and Guilt. What then? are we better than they? No, in
no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they
are all under sin, as it is written, There is none righteous, no, not
one (Rom. 3:9, 10). See also Romans 3:19.
2. Their State. By their state we mean their spiritual condition; that
is, the absence of righteousness in their spiritual life.
a. Sinful in Nature. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in
sin did my mother conceive me (Ps. 51:5). See also Ephesians 2:3;
Genesis 6:5; Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 8:7; Galatians 5:19-21.
b. Sinful in Practice. We ourselves also were sometimes foolish,
disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in
malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another (Titus 3:3).
See also Romans 3:23; Colossians 1:21; Psalm 14:1-3.
c. Lost in Sin. The Son of man is come to seek and to save that
which was lost (Luke 19:10). See also Isaiah 53:6; II Corinthians
d. Spiritually Dead. You hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses
and sins...Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together
with Christ, by grace are ye saved (Eph. 2: 1, 5). Gods
picture of a sinner is a dead man, a man with all of the organs of movement,
but no motion. Likewise, the sinner cannot move in the things of God.
e. Under Gods Wrath. The wrath of God is revealed from heaven
against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth
in unrighteousness (Rom. 1:18). See also John 3:36.
f. Waits for Death. It is appointed unto men once to die, but
after this the judgment (Heb. 9:27).
g. Sure of Hell. Whosoever was not found written in the book of
life was cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:15). See also Revelation
III. MAN IN HIS STATE OF GRACE
A. His Standing.
1. In Christ. As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made
alive (I Cor. 15:22). See also I Corinthians 15:21, 45, 47; Romans
2. Of Perfection. According as he hath chosen us in him before
the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame
before him in love. . . . To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein
he hath made us accepted in the beloved (Eph. 1:4, 6). There are
no charges against the Head; and, as that is so, there can be no charges
against the Body.
B. His State.
By this we mean his spiritual condition. This differs from the life
of the unbeliever. In the believers life righteousness is present
the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ.
1. A New Creature. If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature:
old things are passed away, behold, all things are become new
(II Cor. 5:17). See also 11 Peter 1:4; Galatians 6:15; John 3:16. Regeneration
is a re-creation. Only God can create; only God can re-create.
2. Saved. Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling,
not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace,
which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began (Il
Tim. 1:9). See also Ephesians 2:8,9.
3. Dead Unto Sin. Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead
indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord
(Rom. 6:11). Who his ownself bare our sins in his own body on
the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness:
by whose stripes ye were healed (I Peter 2:24).
4. Child of God. As many as received him, to them gave he power
to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name
(John 1:12). Ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ
Jesus (Gal. 3:26).
5. Under Gods Favor. Blessed be the God and Father of our
Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings
in heavenly places in Christ (Eph. 1:3). See also Romans 5:2.
6. Waits for God and Glory. Our conversation is in heaven; from
whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious
body, according to the working whereby he is able to subdue all things
unto himself (Phil. 3:20,21).
7. Sure of Heaven. The Lord shall deliver me from every evil
work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory
for ever and ever. Amen (II Tim. 4:18). See also I Peter 1:4.
C. His Two Natures.
The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against
the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot
do the things that ye would (Gal. 5:17). The above Scriptures
could not describe anyone but a saved man. The sinner has but one nature;
the child of God has two natures. Every true believer has experienced
the warfare of which Paul speaks. This warfare is best demonstrated
by the household of Abraham. He had two sons Ishmael, the older;
and Isaac, the younger. Ishmael stands for that born of the flesh, while
Isaac stands for that born of the Spirit. The trouble started when Isaac
came into the household. Trouble comes into a Christians life
when Christ enters in.
1. The Description of the Old Nature.
a. Names and Characteristics.
(1) The Flesh. That which is born of the flesh is flesh
(John 3:6). See also Romans 7:18, 23; 8:9. By the flesh
we do not mean muscles and sinews, which are part of the
human body, but rather the carnal nature, which all possess at birth.
There is no such thing as our being in the flesh; the flesh is in us.
No man has ever begotten an unfallen man. For I know that in me
(that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing (Rom. 7:18a). See
also John 6:63; Romans 8:8. There is no such thing as a person being
born with a divine spark within them.
(2) The Natural Man. The natural man receiveth not the things
of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can
he know them, because they are spiritually discerned (I Cor. 2:14).
This is what man is by nature, by his natural birth.
(3) The Old Man. Our old man is crucified with him, that the body
of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin
(Rom. 6:6). See also Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9. This is the man
of old what we once were: corrupt, full of evil desires and lusts.
(4) The Outward Man. Though our outward man perish, yet the inward
man is renewed day by day (II Cor. 4:16).
(5) The Heart. From within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil
thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness,
deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:
all these evil things come from within, and defile the man (Mark
7:21-23). We hear so much of man having a change of heart, but this
is impossible, for only God can give a new heart.
(6) The Carnal Mind. The carnal mind is enmity against God: for
it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be (Rom.
(7) Sin. By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin;
and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned (Rom.
5:12). The word sin refers to the fallen nature of man,
while sins refer to the actions of this nature.
b. The Character and End.
(1) It Is an Adams Nature. This means that Adam fell, and his
children are, therefore, fallen children of a fallen father.
(2) It Is an Inherited Nature. We receive our fallen nature from Adam.
(3) It Is an Evil Nature. The eighth chapter of Romans is a commentary
on this point.
(4) It Is an Unchangeable Nature. That which is born of the flesh
is flesh (John 3:6a). As long as man lives, that fallen nature
remains in him. It will be eradicated only at the resurrection of the
dead in Christ, and the transformation of those alive in Christ, at
His second appearing.
(5) Its End Is Death. The wages of sin is death (Rom. 6:23a).
See also Romans 8:5-13.
2. The Description of the New Nature.
a. Its Names and Characteristics.
(1) Spirit. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that
which is born of the Spirit is spirit (John 3:6).
(2) Divine Nature. There are given unto us exceeding great and
precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine
nature, having escaped the correction that is in the world through lust
(II Peter 1:4). See also I John 3:9; 5:18, 19.
(3) The New Man. Put on the new man, which after God is created
in righteousness and true holiness (Eph. 4:24). See also Colossians
3:10; II Corinthians 5:17.
(4) The Inward Man. Though our outward man perish, yet the inward
man is renewed day by day (II Cor. 4:16). I delight in the
law of God after the inward man (Rom. 7:22). See also Ephesians
(5) Mind. I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with
the mind I myself serve the law of God: but with the flesh the law of
sin (Rom. 7:25).
b. Its Character and End.
(1) It Is a Christly Nature.
(2) It Is An Imported Nature..
(3) It Is a Holy Nature.
(4) It Is an Unchangeable Nature.
(5) It Is Non-forfeited Nature.
Verses 1 and 2 of I John 2 speak of the relation of the saint
with the Father. Even when the saint sins it is a family matter.
(6) Its End is Resurrection and Rapture. Behold, I shew
you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the
trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and
we shall be changed. For this corruptible shall put on incorruption,
and this mortal shall put on immortality... But thanks be to God, which
giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ (I Cor. 15:51-53,
3. The Conflict Between the Two Natures.
a. The Believers Experience. Every child of God has two natures;
the unsaved man has only one nature. The old nature cannot be eradicated
while the believer lives in the flesh; therefore, we have the fight
between the old and new natures. The flesh lusteth against the
Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the
one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would
(Gal. 5: 17). Romans 7:15-25 is another marvelous example illustrating
this truth. However, someone may declare that this passage shows the
conflict in Pauls life before he was saved, but one verse in this
passage clearly reveals that this conflict, so vividly described, occurred
after he was saved: I delight in the law of God after the inward
man (Rom. 7:22). No unsaved man ever delights after the law of
God. Also, only the saved man has the inward man, which is the new nature.
b. The Believers Responsibility.
(1) In Relation To the Old Nature.
(a) Accept Gods Estimate of It. Our old man is crucified
with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we
should not serve sin. For he that is dead is freed from sin. Now if
we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him:
knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death
hath no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he died unto sin
once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. Likewise reckon ye
also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through
Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom. 6:6-11). This one truth must be pointed
out: the old man is never said to be crucified in the believer, but
is crucified with Christ. It is a reality! Accept it! It is not a matter
of feeling, but one of faith. All of this truth is according to Gods
view. As for the believers view, he knows that the old nature,
the old man, is not dead; he is very much alive. The Scripture says,
Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin. If
the old nature were actually dead, the believer would not have to reckon
him so; he would know.
(b) Make No Provision for the Flesh. Put ye on the Lord Jesus
Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof
(Rom.13:14). In other words, do not feed the flesh. Starve it.
(c) Mortify the Flesh. Mortify therefore your members which are
upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil
concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry (Col. 3:5).
A stronger term is, Put to death, therefore, your members.
The words as good as dead (Heb. 11:12) are the same terminology.
(d) Never Try to Improve It. Neither yield your members as instruments
of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those
that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness
unto God (Rom. 6:13).
(e) Put It Off. Put off concerning the form of conversation the
old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts (Eph.
4:22). The same word is translated laid down in Acts 7:58.
(2) In Relation to the New Nature.
(a) Reckon Ourselves to Be Alive. Reckon ye also yourselves to
be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our
Lord (Rom. 6:11).
(b) Walk in Newness of Life. We are his workmanship, created unto
good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them
(Eph. 2:10). See also Romans 6:14; 7:6.
(c) Feed and Nourish It. As newborn babes, desire the sincere
milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby (I Peter 2:2). We are
to feed the new nature by the exposition of the Word, and not by the
exhortation of man. We know we have two natures, and it is well to consider
that the food for one will starve the other. It is the individual Christian
who must decide which man, the old or the new, shall be fed. He cannot
feed both at the same time.
(d) Put On the New Man. Put on the new man, which after God is
created in righteousness and true holiness (Eph. 4:24).
(e) Depend Upon the Indwelling Spirit for Power. Grieve not the
Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption
(Eph. 4:30). My brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power
of his might (Eph. 6:10). Not by might, nor by power, but
by my spirit, saith the LORD of hosts (Zech. 4:6b).